JEL Code

D6, D14, D61, E44, H11, G21, G22, G23


The value of financial markets is under-appreciated. Financial markets perform fundamental functions which are vital in reducing transactions costs in the economy for businesses and households. Without well-functioning financial markets, business would find if much more costly to raise capital and ordinary households would find retirement, protection against everyday risks and day-to-day transactions impossible. Those who criticise financial markets ignore the breadth of their functions and focus on a narrow range of activities. However, even activities such as trading, speculation and so on have social value. The evidence that they cause social problems appears more circumstantial when put under closer scrutiny.

Submission Date

June 2020

Approval Date


Publication Date